This guide was created by 2017-2018 Library Research Alumni Fellow Dykee Gorrell, then updated by 2018-2019 Library Research Alumni Fellow Elan Goldman. For students with questions about citing sources, you can contact a librarian with questions or make an appointment by emailing email@example.com.
The origin of this resource is the Lloyd Sealy Library
The Bluebook by Columbia Law Review (Compiled by)
Publication Date: 2010-05-02
The Importance of Citation
The Importance of Citation: Questions you may have pondered while at Hampshire College
Why do we cite?
To avoid plagiarism
To credit people whose work we’re in conversation with
To be transparent about the genealogy of our work
To help readers access the sources we use
Why are there different styles of citation? Why can't we just have one?
Citation styles are different because members of different disciplines and schools of thought pursue research differently! It's that simple!
Scientific writing privileges currency, therefore dates are emphasized in in-text citations following APA (American Psychological Association) Style.
Historians usually pay attention to important details and nuance, and must demonstrate rigorous use of evidence in their work. Footnotes in historiography allow authors to include multiple citations and details without interrupting the flow of the paper. Historians often use Chicago, a footnote-based citation style.
Writing in the humanities strives to show relationships between authors' thinking, and this is why many literary scholars use MLA style, with parenthetical in-text citations instead of footnotes.
The actual citation styles
MLA, Chicago and APA
MLA: Modern Language Association: Most commonly used in the humanities
APA Style: American Psychological Association: Common in the sciences and the social sciences
Chicago: A flexible style that allows authors to use footnotes or in-text citations.
How to recognize the differences between kinds of citations: books, journal articles, etc.
Book (Algorithms of Oppression by Safiya Umoja Noble)
Noble, Safiya Umoja. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. NYU Press, 2018.
Noble, Safiya Umoja. Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: NYU Press, 2018.
Noble, S. U. (2018). Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism. New York: NYU Press.
Journal Article ("Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color" by Kimberle Crenshaw)
Crenshaw, Kimberle. "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color." Stanford Law Review, vol. 43, no. 6, 1991, pp. 1241-99.
Crenshaw, Kimberle. "Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color," Stanford Law Review, 43, no. 6 (1991): 1241-99.
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity politics, and violence against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241-99.